PDF At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943 ´ Erika Lee

  • Paperback
  • 352
  • At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943
  • Erika Lee
  • English
  • 03 May 2019
  • 9780807854488

Erika Lee Á 5 Read

characters At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943 Erika Lee Á 5 Read Read At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943 ë PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Entirely to both Chinese immigrants and the American immigration officials who sought to keep them out Erika Lee explores how Chinese exclusion laws not only transformed Chinese American lives immigration patterns identities and families but also recast the United States into a gatekeeping nation Immigrant identification border enforcement surveillance and deportation policies were extended far bey.

characters At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943

characters At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943 Erika Lee Á 5 Read Read At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943 ë PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Ond any controls that had existed in the United States before Drawing on a rich trove of historical sources including recently released immigration records oral histories interviews and letters Lee brings alive the forgotten journeys secrets hardships and triumphs of Chinese immigrants Her timely book exposes the legacy of Chinese exclusion in current American immigration control and race relations. Erika Lee surveys a largely ignored period of Chinese American history the exclusion era Much like the nadir period of African American history ca 1890 1945 many histories treat the exclusion era as a silent period passed over between the high profile times of the Gold Rush and subseuent railroad construction and the latter period of open immigration particularly after 1965 While she uses her own family s immigration history to open the introduction Lee delivers an academic history examining the effects of exclusion and restriction on the Chinese already living in the United States and on those who still found ways to enter despite the legal barriers Read in the light of the anti immigrant hysteria that is such a feature of our current politics Lee s argument that the Chinese Exclusion Act fundamentally reshaped America s history with immigrants and immigration rings particularly true

Download ´ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Á Erika Lee

characters At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943 Erika Lee Á 5 Read Read At America's Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era 1882 1943 ë PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free With the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Chinese laborers became the first group in American history to be excluded from the United States on the basis of their race and class This landmark law changed the course of US immigration history but we know little about its conseuences for the Chinese in America or for the United States as a nation of immigrants At America's Gates is the first book devoted. In Erika Lee s At America s Gates Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era1882 1943 the author articulates how the image of the United States of America transitioned from an egalitarian nation of immigrants to an exclusionary gate keeping nation evidenced by the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 She further demonstrates this transformation with accounts from her personal family history relating how several of her ancestors from China entered the United States to work in pre exclusionary and exclusionary eras Her maternal great great great grandfather May Dong Kee arrived in California without any circumstance as a farmer in 1854 along with many other Chinese immigrants seeking their fortunes in the Gum Saan or Gold Mountain their term for the USA By comparison during the era of exclusion over a half century later in 1918 Lee s grandfather Lee Chi Yet submitted to a strip search and a 2 week investigation at Angel Island in San Francisco in order to enter America as a Chinese born immigrant He did so as a paper son meaning that he had to assume a new falsified name and pose as the son of a merchant in order to enter the nation that would have refused his entry had they known his true identity as a farmer or imprisoned and deported him had they discovered his deception This juxtaposition begins Lee s investigation of how the Chinese exclusion laws affected the Chinese population in America and how the laws transformed America s national identity demographic makeup and image as nation of certain immigrants Following her concise introduction Lee organizes her book into four parts with two chapters to each part and an afterword that addresses the legacy of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 in relation to the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001 In Part I Closing the Gates Lee chronicles the California origins of federal immigration regulation as well as the history of the law officials and agencies tasked with the enforcement of excluding and admitting Chinese immigrants and travelers into and out of America Using government records as primary sources that were only made available to the public in the early 1990s Lee moves on to Part II At America s Gates which traces the relationship between defining Chinese identity and American identity at the immigration offices on Angel Island the so called Ellis Island of the West in San Francisco Part III Cracks in the Gate chronicles the growth of illegal immigration and reveals the government s futile task of policing its extensive borders Part IV The Conseuences and Legacies of Exclusion includes a discussion of the shift from border patrol to harassing Chinese American citizens and immigrants alike in the interior cities of America as well as an Epilogue devoted to the post exclusionary era s legacy in late twentieth century immigration policies Whereas other scholarly studies of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 tend to focus on the legal and transnational aspects it precipitated Lee identifies her study s novel combination of local national and transnational frameworks as well as perspectives from both Chinese immigrants and US immigration officials Overall although Lee s thesis statements tend to be repeated a bit excessively in the main introduction in the section introductions in the chapter introductions throughout the chapters and in the chapter conclusions Lee articulates supports and proves these points in a persuasive and impressive fashionChapter 1 The Chinese Are Coming How Can We Stop Them Chinese Exclusion and the Origins of American Gatekeeping re calibrates the common origins story of immigration reform during the 1920s when the federal government introduced uota systems back to the 1870s when California politicians and labor unions lobbied for the exclusion of Chinese immigrants from America American politics race class and gender relations national identity and the role of the federal government in controlling immigration Beginning with a western American desire to sustain white supremacy in a multiracial West gatekeeping became a national reality and was extended to other immigrant groups such as other Asians Mexicans and certain Europeans who were continually portrayed by Nativists to be just like the Chinese During the Chinese exclusionary era the federal government developed a thorough system of immigration inspections passport and other documentary reuirements surveillance and criminalization of immigration and the deportation of immigrants that it used to regulate immigration from a variety of nations by the 1930sIn Chapter 2 The Keepers of the Gate US Immigration Officials and Chinese Exclusion Lee introduces the federal immigration agents along with their diverse perspectives and policies for excluding Chinese immigrants On one extreme end John H Wise US collector of customs at the port of San Francisco from 1892 to 1898 strove for the exclusion and deportation of all Chinese but only succeeded in making it much difficult for all exempt class Chinese including native born American citizens from gaining admission or readmission into the country By comparison Oscar S Straus the Secretary of Labor appointed in 1907 by President Roosevelt sympathized with Chinese immigrants and inverted the original philosophy of the immigration regulation by making admission the rule and exclusion the exception These examples along with others in between construct a nuanced complex picture of how exclusionary immigration policies developed Overall Washington DC followed the San Francisco model as its role in enforcement of immigration law developed from ad hoc beginnings to a defined bureaucracy From 1882 1910 the immigration service locally and nationally had been transformed from a corps of untrained Chinese inspectors under the Customs Service s jurisdiction to a centralized and highly bureaucratic agency under the Department of Commerce and Labor Starting off with a strong commitment to exclude as many Chinese immigrants as possible there was an attempt at federal reform for a fair treatment during the early twentieth century but Nativist rhetoric and political pressure re invigorated the federal government s commitment to severely limiting Chinese immigration Chapter 3 Exclusion Acts Race Class Gender and Citizenship in the Enforcement of the Exclusion Laws transitions to a consideration of how exclusion enforcement shaped Chinese American as well as American identity As the government developed a system of personal scrutiny of legal definitions of what it meant to be Chinese a merchant a prostitute and a citizen their actions had the dual effect of shaping the identities of Chinese Americans and the nation s ideals of race class gender and citizenshipWhile immigration officers institutionalized popular beliefs and stereotypes of Chinese men as cunning deceivers and women as loathsome prostitutes the judicial branch of the federal government restored some rights to Chinese Americans through hard fought court rulings In one instance it took a US Supreme Court ruling in 1898 that guaranteed birthright citizenship as promised in the Fourteenth Amendment to re admit an American born son of two non citizen Chinese parents As revealed in this example the exclusion laws affected and interfered in the lives of Chinese Americans in addition to Chinese immigrants In this chapter Lee begins to include thorough tables totaling the statistics for how many Chinese men women and citizens were admitted to America in certain years according to government recordsIn Chapter 4 One Hundred Kinds of Oppressive Laws The Chinese Response to American Exclusion Lee identifies changing patterns and strategies of resistance to explain why Chinese continued to come to the United States and how they managed to get in while the exclusion laws were in effect Between 1882 and 1943 by constantly adapting their migration patterns to fit the shifting terrain of the exclusion laws an estimated 300955 Chinese successfully gained admission into the United States for the first time or as returning residents and native born citizens In addition to the transnational migrants moving between the two countries many men continued to leave the depressed economy of China for the promise of work and pay in America Operating within transnational migration patterns and relying upon well organized networks of family white allies and lawyers the Chinese populations on both sides of the Pacific remained consistent and vocal critics of the exclusion policy during the sixty one years that it was in effect and demonstrated an adept understanding of the American judicial system to resourcefully work within the system to gain national entrance However as the means to completely dismantle the system were limited and working within the system took an unacceptable amount of time many Chinese Americans and immigrants learned how to negotiate their way around the exclusion laws as the next two chapters explore in greater detailChapter 5 Enforcing the Borders Chinese Exclusion along the US Canadian and the US Mexican Borders reveals the similarities and differences between the experiments in American border diplomacy and border enforcement along the northern and southern border regions between 1882 1920 During this time period an estimated 17300 Chinese immigrants entered the United States illegally from the nations of Canada and Mexico Whereas the US efforts to prevent these movements centered on border diplomacy with Canada due to a shared white European heritage a system of surveillance and deportation developed along the Mexican border where racial bonds were absent In both the north and the south however border crossing associated with illegal immigration became a lucrative international and interracial business as Chinese Canadian Mexican and American guides cooperated with each other for mutual gain Lee includes a photograph of Chinese Posing as Mexicans from 1907 to demonstrate a common strategy used by Chinese immigrants to enter the US from the southern border In response to these acts of defiance a new imperialist assertion of American sovereignty in the form of border controls effectively closed both the northern and southern borders by the 1920sIn Chapter 6 The Crooked Path Chinese Illegal Immigration and Its Conseuences Lee examines how the legislative attempt to exclude Chinese did not end Chinese immigration it merely forced it underground and supported a transnational business of illegal immigration that corrupted both the Chinese community in America and the American government itself Shifting from the border crossings to the nation s ports this system of illegal immigration involved false immigration papers corrupt immigration officials and lies evasion and bribes to aid Chinese entry to America In response to the embarrassment of illegal immigration the federal government justified further intensification of the screening process which resulted in a perpetual cycle of injustice yielding arbitrary results in which some legal immigrants were unfairly excluded from the United States while others gained admission through fraud and evasion Throughout the various iterations of this illogical cycle of making legal immigration difficult and illegal immigration appealing both certain members of the American customs officials and the Chinese American community were corrupted as bribes appeared to be efficient and logical alternatives to the inherently flawed systemChapter 7 In the Shadow of Exclusion The Impact of Exclusion on the Chinese in America examines how American gatekeeping in the early twentieth century extended beyond the nation s borders and into the interiors leading to an increase in the state s role in disciplining Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans through the establishment of a system of arrest and deportation These racist and anti immigrant policies came to be enforced in Chinese homesplaces of business and communities such that even Chinese Americans lived in a shadow of fear that resulted in their segregation marginalization and return migration during the exclusion era and even decades beyond its end in 1943 In the Epilogue Echoes of Exclusion in the Late Twentieth Century Lee briefly chronicles the post exclusion era s immigration reform emphasizing the exclusion era s legacy of perpetual tension between America s ideal as a nation of immigrants and its reality as a gatekeeping nation particularly with respect to the government s recent efforts to control both the US Mexican border and Mexican immigrants As a final thought in the Afterword Following September 11 2001 Lee identifies the familiar catchphrases of containment and protection to justify blanket racialized associations of Arabs and Muslims with terrorists implying that the shadow of the Chinese Exclusion Act has reached into the twenty first century